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Nuclear Safeguards Education Portal
  

Implementation of C/S (cont.)

 The COBRA Seal System in the photograph is a fibre optic general purpose seal. The seal is inserted into a verification assembly that records a reference image of the seal signature pattern. (Source: Dean Calma/IAEA)
The COBRA Seal System in the photograph is a fibre optic general purpose seal. The seal is inserted into a verification assembly that records a reference image of the seal signature pattern. (Source: Dean Calma/IAEA) 

These implementation needs are partially met with applying seals. Seals can typically be found in the following locations:

  • shields covering reactors
  • channel gates, doors and other access possibilities
  • fresh fuel racks, stacks of spent fuel, and fuel assemblies
  • spent fuel casks and other containers
  • valves, levers, and instruments
  • IAEA equipment and other items (samples, standards, documents) stored at the facility

Any applied seals must be verified once they have been removed by the inspector. The frequency of these verifications is dependent upon the timeliness goals for detection of diversion for the material.

The application of seals can be supplemented to meet implementation needs with the application of optical surveillance. Optical surveillance is most effective in storage areas where few activities occur that may be interpreted as removal of nuclear material. Typical application of optical surveillance would be two or more cameras positioned to completely cover the storage area. These cameras can be motion triggered or set to a pre-determined frequency by the IAEA.

In some situations, such as the on-load refueled reactor, radiation monitors can be used to indicate when fuel has passed through key points in the fuel transfer system.

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