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Nuclear Safeguards Education Portal

Upgrades Analysis

After developing scenarios and determining vulnerabilities within the PPS, upgrades can be proposed to ensure that the PPS performs up to the necessary standards. Numerous upgrade options will exist that meet desired risk limits, so they should be proposed after careful consideration of cost, the amount of time the upgrades will take to install and implement, and what kind of impact they will have on operations at the facility. Upgrades can be proposed for any part of the system, but should be proposed based on how well they can be integrated to improve the total system effectiveness rather than the effectiveness of an individual element of the system. There will be multiple upgrade options that will meet the desired risk criteria, so multiple solutions should be considered.

Detection upgrades can include:                       

  • improving sensor detection probabilities against the DBT before the CDP
  • improving sensors such that more scenarios are detected sooner or with higher probability or so that the NAR rate is decreased
  • improving assessment capabilities to decrease the amount of time required for assessment
  • increasing capability to detect tampering with sensors
  • increasing confidence in functioning abilities after installation through maintenance or calibration

Delay upgrades can include:

  • adding delay closer to the target, which may move the CDP and provide more locations for sensor placement
  • compensatory delay measures when delay features must be opened or are not working
  • barriers that can prevent certain capabilities of the threat, such as vehicle barriers

Response force upgrades can include:

Other potential upgrades considerations include:

  • performing an insider analysis and determining mitigation measures to decrease the likelihood of insider assistance
  • decreasing the amount of material on site
  • developing procedural changes, such as the two person rule for access to security areas

Once upgrades have been implemented and the PPS meets the designated risk acceptance criteria, the system should continue to be tested to ensure that it is operating as designed and that changes in conditions will not compromise the system. The threat facing the facility is dynamic and can continually probe the PPS to search for weaknesses, learn new tactics, or obtain new equipment.


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